The Ethnography of birth care in the Czech Republic
HREŠANOVÁ, E. The Ethnography of birth care in the Czech Republic. Dublin, 2010.
|Anglický název:||The Ethnography of birth care in the Czech Republic|
|Autoři:||Mgr. Ema Hrešanová|
|Abstrakt CZ:||Tento poster se soustředí na klíčové aspekty české porodní péče a na procesy, které ˇho v současné době ovlivňují. Staví na 20měsíčním etnografickém výzkumu dvou porodnic, který jsem prováděla ve dvou městech od roku 2004 do roku 2007.Studované porodnice jsem pojímala jako jakési "okno",skrze které jsem mohla sledovat nejdůležitější aspekty českého porodního systému. Moje perspektiva je sociálně konstruktivistická. Je zakotvena v antropologii a sociologii porodu a inspirována organizačními studii. Specifickým cílem mého výzkumu bylo porozumět organizačním kulturám dvou porodnic a pochopit ,jak tyto kultury ovlivňují poskytovanou péči a tím i zdraví rodiček a jejich dětí.|
|Abstrakt EN:||This poster focuses on key aspects of the Czech birth care system and on processes which are currently influencing it. It is based on 20-months-long ethnographic research of two maternity hospitals, which I conducted in two small Czech towns from 2004 to 2007. I took the maternity hospitals I studied as a kind of ?window? allowing me to see the most significant attributes of the Czech birth care system. My perspective is social constructivist; it is embedded in the anthropology and sociology of childbirth and inspired by organizational studies, too. The specific goal of my research was to understand the organizational cultures of two maternity hospitals, and to comprehend how these cultures influence and shape birth care and, by extension, the health of birthing women and their newborns receiving such care. The study primarily focuses on the perspective of the maternity hospital employees whom I perceive as main bearers of the organizational cultures. Inspired by DeVries et al [2001 I analyse organizational cultures of these maternity hospitals on three distinct levels. On a micro level I focus on interactions among maternity hospital employees and their clients. I explore how the staff view and approach birthing women and the characteristics by which they categorise them. In particular I discuss various ways in which my informants construct ?normality? in relation to birthing women and their childbirth conceptions. I especially focus on the category, which my informants call ?natural mommies? (or also ?over-educated women?) and ?normal mommies?. I also point to structural and organizational limitations that shape the midwives and obstetricians? possibilities to accommodate the natural women?s demands on birth care. In this regard the role of the Czech Obstetrical and Gynaecological Association is especially important, as it is this organization that determines what demands and wishes related to birth and postnatal care may be addressed in Czech maternity hospitals (e.g. the administration of oxytocin after the delivery, or short stay at hospitals etc.). On a meso level I study processes that currently influence two most important occupations ? midwives and obstetricians. In particular I focus on positions and working lives of midwives, as they are key providers of birth care spending most of the time with a birthing woman. I discuss two competing conceptions of midwifery that assert themselves in the Czech setting. I specify how these conceptions manifest themselves in the investigated maternity hospitals. On a macro level I concentrate on social processes and phenomena that transcend the specific maternity hospital context and affect the whole birth care system in the Czech Republic. In particular I concentrate on the impact of consumerism and commercialisation which are processes closely related to market-driven reforms of the health care system. These processes influence the Czech birth care in many significant ways, which will be outlined in the poster.|